Cf. Issawi, pp. 99 f.


See p. lxxv, above, and 2:417, below.


At the beginning of the work, ed. C. G. Kuhn (Leipzig, 1821-33), III, 2. See also below, 3:149.


Cf. Qur'an 2.30 (28).


The "object" (mawdu`) of a science is the fundamental elements at its basis, such as quantities (measurements) in geometry, numbers in arith­metic, substances in physics, and so on. The object of Ibn Khaldun's new science is human social organization, or civilization (cf. p. 77, above). See 3:111 f., below. For the Avicennian basis of this theory, see, for instance, A: M. Goichon, Lexique de la philosophie d'Ibn Sind (Paris, 1938), p. 439, and AN l-Barakat Hibatallah al-Baghdadi, Mu'tabar (Hyderabad, 1357-58/ 1938-39), I, 221 ff. These fundamental elements of the individual sciences do not require proof of their existence. The pertinent Aristotelian passage in this connection (Analytica posteriors 76b 3 ff.), was quoted by de Slane. However, the Arabic translation, as published by `Abd-ar-Rahman Badawi, Manliq Aristu (Cairo, 1948-49), II, 339, does not use the term mawdu` in this context.


Cf. Issawi, pp. 100 f.


see p. 84, above


Qur'an 20.50(52)


"Magians" originally meant the Zoroastrians. In later Islam they were considered as people who followed a kind of prophet but did not have Scriptures like the Christians and the Jews. Thus, they occupied a position somewhere between the latter and polytheists. The term was eventually used to denote the general idea of pagans. Cf. V. F. Buchner in EI, s.v. "Madjus."


For the rather difficult use of hi-khilaf, cf. also below, p. 400, 1. 15.